ceramic decorations are always welcome in our home. The combination of their shapes and colors makes it even more unique and elegant. Discover how the ceramics were created in the beginning of time.
First, all pottery was cured by drying in the sun, but the increase in the use of fire quickly highlighted the fact that a ship of the earth is on fire baked as hard as a stone. The man has no time for luxury, then: everything was done only for utilitarian purposes. Thousands of years before different districts produce different colors of clay found that led to the use of decoration.
These ancient discoveries were the basis on which the ceramic built the last 4000 years.
Ceramics, however, was not a complete art until the technique is mastered enamel. Simple clay is porous after water stops for a while I fired, but gradually the liquid flowing through the air spaces between the clay particles. Glazing not only durable ceramic and worthy eyes but also waterproof.
Glazes are superficial layers of molten material that were drawn on clay background. They are as varied as the many types of pottery, and must never forget that any type of ceramic body is better with proper enamel.
The ancient Egyptians, Syrians and Persians is generally credited with developing the first practical glazing material a very uncertain alkaline. Pioneer ceramic glazes found that often change color natural clay. Gradually they learned of iron, manganese and cobalt to be used to dye their products with impressive results. Some of the earliest glazes were colored glass, copper or iron, which produces elegant green, turquoise and yellow vases of ancient Assyrian and Egyptian origin. wonderful work had been done with these few materials, but the truth was of fine ceramics appeared with Persian, Egyptian and Syrian work immediately preceding the Crusades.
At this time, the art of ceramics with a glass of soda lime is carefully learned by the craftsmen of the Middle East. This allowed a revolutionary new technology known as color name glass, ceramic decorative painting is baked before the merger. After being removed from the oven, the drawings can be seen in bright colors, shining through the transparent lacquer.
Vases, tiles, oil lamps and form of ceremonial plates, good plastic clay, were provided with a coating of white silicate to get in shape for the glazes of this type, so that the best possible basis for colors and then painted known.
While Middle East ceramists were producing their beautiful masterpieces, other cultures around the world have also to create experiences, new and wonderful art of clay and fire. As wheel races independently discovered many ceramics, as the use of molds and liquefied clay, known today as sliding.
A traditional pottery making up the glass ceramics were. It is the art of ceramics, which still survives.
Cut a new concept – LED spot lamps – LED street lighting in China
Today, companies simply can not mold and sale of cutting tools to be successful, must be compatible with the globalization of production trends, improving the efficiency of cooperation with customers to reduce the cost. This almost instantaneous global competition after the NAFTA era, post-WTO, companies in the world, the same brand feels faster, easier, less the answer. In other words, containing products and components manufactured in high-speed operation for the free press, the better, lighter and less expensive to manufacture. Achieving these goals is the best way, through the development and application of new materials, new and improved, but are difficult to process the material in general. Market power and a combination of technical difficulties in the automotive and aerospace industries particularly prominent, and was an expert tool D of the main driving force of R +.
For example, take the iron, which was to see the engine parts and other vehicles, agricultural equipment industry and the machine tool by more material. This alloy has lower production costs and a combination of good mechanical properties. They are cheap compared to steel, while the ratio of the melt has a higher strength and hardness. But the cast is very comfortable to wear, wear bad tendency of the material to the rapid tool. This wear greatly influenced by the content of perlite. Perlite ductile iron content higher, the better the wear resistance is known and poor handling. Furthermore, the porous ductile iron carried intermittent cutting, smaller life expectancy.
Hopefully, high hardness and high wear resistance cutting material must have high wear resistance of cast iron are considered. And in fact, the extremely hard material containing TiC (titanium carbide) or TiCN (titanium carbo) thick coating of cutting speed 300 meters per minute in the processing of iron was found to be generally effective. But increases with increasing cutting speed, the chip / implement combination of the surface temperature. When this occurs, it tends TiC-coating and iron to react chemically and softening and compressive strength of the coating to crater wear. In these circumstances, I hope, better chemical stability of the coating is there as Al2O3 (although at a slower speed than TiC hard or wear).
The chemical stability of wear resistance has become a major factor performance limits, speed and temperature depend on the processing of the grain structure and ductile properties. But usually applied thick layer of TiC or TiCN and only thin oxide coating ductile iron, because today most of these materials by the cutting speed minutes can be processed at between 150 and 335 meters. Up to 300 meters faster than demand minute, people are satisfied with this material.
To start the operation of this range, Berg R and D optimization and TX150 machining cast iron material. These materials have a strength and resistance to deformation of the matrix is ideal for machining cast iron. Layer is very thick coating wear thin layer of titanium carbonitride and crater wear resistance of the oxide coating is the top of a thin layer of TiN. This coating process the current production level of wear resistance and wear resistance of CVD coatings crater has all the hardness and tenacity in the temperature increase in the fineness of the chemical deposition using the method of vapor deposition ( MT-CVD). Substrate / coating combination of performance with increased resistance to plastic deformation and capabilities of micro-collapse of last generation, which is the machining of iron ductile material ideal, high-speed standard.
ceramic coating method can also be iron. In the past, no coating hardness such as silicon nitride and silicon carbide fiber reinforced application of ceramic aluminum chemical affinity for the limits of materials. But today, thanks to the use of coating processes deformation of layered chips against tool life high temperature has increased significantly. And parts at the beginning of this process, the surface coating of aluminum oxide improves use ceramic whiskers, most research activities focus on the present silicon nitride TiN. This coating can significantly improve the toughness of ceramic applications.